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Telomeres and Aging

In our opinion the cause of aging is simple: it is telomere shortening.

Telomeres are little caps at the end of each of our chromosomes. When our cells divide, the DNA in those chromosomes has to be copied. During this process, the last little bit of the strand - the tip of the telomere - does not get copied and so our telomeres shorten over our lifetimes. This is often referred to as the end-replication problem, but in our opinion it is a 'problem' that is by design.

You can read why we believe in the telomere theory of aging here or you can read this brief description about it. But to make a long story short, as telomeres shorten, the cells they inhabit become 'older' and more dysfunctional. 1 They divide less frequently.2 Stem cells produce new copies less frequently, and at a certain point not at all.3 As a result of all this, our eyesight begins to fail, our skin becomes less elastic4, our immune systems become less effective5 and a host of other changes typically associated with aging begin to take place6.

What is Telomere Guard?
 
1

A product designed to SLOW AGING at its TRUE SOURCE by SLOWING TELOMERE SHORTENING

2

A blend of thoroughly-researched nutraceuticals, each independently shown in public studies to slow telomere shortening.

3

A revolution in life extension!



The Triumphs and Challenges of Telomerase

Telomerase is an enzyme that extends telomeres. The gene that codes for it is in every one of our cells, but not 'expressed' in most of them, which means that telomerase is not made from it. Over the last several years, the telomere-based life extension conversation has centered largely around the topic of turning this gene on - 'telomerase activation'. It was believed by some that when we could do that, then telomeres could be lengthened in cells all over the body and aging could be conquered.

However, recent in vivo studies of telomerase activation in humans and mice have shown that telomerase activation did not increase average telomere length and in fact did not even slow down telomere shortening in a statistically significant way9. It did lengthen critically short telomeres10, which was an enormous success, and served to reverse some aspects of aging as a result, most notably in the remodeling of the immune system.

Telomerase is the enzyme that extends telomeres, and one of the few known natural processes by which they can be extended. But it is now clear that there are more regulation mechanisms at work in the cell that need to be unlocked before we can put it to use fully. We do not today have a way to extend average telomere length. What is worse, however, is that we do not even appear to have an effective way to counter the inevitable shortening of average telomere length over long periods of time.


A New Approach

This is where Telomere Guard comes in. At the same time as this research in telomerase activation was going on, the excitement surrounding telomeres was causing different scientists across the world to ask whether anything can slow telomere shortening down. Most substances had no effect. But as it turned out, some natural compounds did in fact make a very significant difference.

Telomere Guard takes advantage of these discoveries by combining the most promising of these neutraceuticals into one powerful product. Now for the first time you can slow down aging at its true source - telomere shortening.

Scientists have found a number of nutriceuticals that appear to slow telomere shortening down dramatically.



Telomere Guard takes advantage of these discoveries by combining the most promising of them into one powerful product.

Human chromosomes (grey) capped by telomeres (white)


Components


Alpha-tocopherol

In this study, pretreatment of cells with alpha-tocopherol (the most commonly sold component of Vitamin E) delayed the telomere shortening associated with subsequent hydrogen peroxide treatment.

Asc-2-O-phosphate (Asc2P)

Shortening rate reduction

52-62%
 

Asc-2-O-phosphate (Asc2P) is a rare form of Vitamin C. In this study, it was shown that repetitive addition of Asc2P to human endothelial cells in vitro slowed telomere shortening by a dramatic 52-62%. Regular Vitamin C had no effect. Read more.

Purslane

Shortening rate reduction

24-57%
 
Telomerase Activator

In this study, a group of three month old mice received purslane subcutaneously (by shot) for only two weeks. The Purslane group (with 2.5 mg/kg-day) had increased telomerase activity and the telomeres of the brain cells of the mice after that period were 27kb as opposed to 23kb in the control group - a very dramatic difference for only 2 weeks of treatment. Read more.

Carnosine

Shortening rate reduction

32%
 

In this study, cells grown with continuous exposure to carnosine exhibited a 32% slower telomere shortening rate (loss of 26.8 versus 39.4 TRFs) and extended lifespan, all in the face of a higher reproduction/cell doubling rate. Read more.

Terminalia Chebula

Shortening rate reduction

45%
 

In one study, the telomere shortening rate of Terminalia Chebula treated cells was 192 bp/PDL, as compared to the control group's 342 bp/PDL - a rate reduction of 45%. Read more.

Tocotrienols

Telomerase Activator

Tocotrienols are part of the group of phytochemicals known together as Vitamin E, but not included in most Vitamin E supplements. In this in vitro study, the authors concluded that "gamma-tocotrienol protects against oxidative stress-induced cellular ageing by modulating the telomere length possibly via telomerase". Cells were exposed for 24 hours to gamma-tocotrienol before and/or after 2 hour exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). At the optimal dose, telomere lengths of treated cells appear to have been roughly 16% longer than controls after only this very short period of exposure.

Green Tea

In this study, consumption of green tea was correlated with longer telomeres in men . Out of a sample of over 2000 Chinese participants, those in the highest quartile of tea consumption (greater than 750 mL/day) had an average of 0.46 kb longer telomeres than those in the lowest quartile (less than 70 mL/day). This is approximately equivalent to 5 years of life.

N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC)

In this in vitro study, the authors found that the "onset of replicative senescence [was] delayed by incubation with N-Acetyl Cysteine".

Homocysteine

Shortening rate reduction

67%
 

High levels of homocysteine have been shown to triple the rate of reduction in telomere length during cell division. High homocysteine levels are the result of poor methylation the severity of which varies from person to person. However, it has long been known that these supplements can help support healthy homocysteine levels.

  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Pyridoxine (B6)
  • Riboflavin (B2)
  • TMG (trimethylglycine)

Oxidation

Part of the job of the telomere is to 'cap' the chromosome in order to protect it from damage. But nothing caps the telomere itself. Because of this, telomeres are vulnerable to damage, particularly from oxidative stress, a phenomemon that has been discovered recently to dramatically accelerate telomere shorteing.11 Because of this we have included three powerful anti-oxidants: Blueberry, Acai and Grapeseed extract.


Things We Excluded


Omega 3s

In this study, patients who were in the lower quartile of marine Omega-3 fatty acid levels had over triple the rate in telomere length reduction (13 T/S units) over a five-year span than patients in the upper quartile of marine Omega-3 fatty acid levels (5 T/S units). Read more.

We did not include Omega 3s in Telomere Guard because it was not cost and volume effective to offer it in the amounts we would recommend (700mg per day) in powder form. We also thought that many people interested in life extension would already be taking this by oil or softgel capsule. So we left it out. But, the above study indicates that it may be very effective in slowing telomere shortening so make sure to take an Omega 3 supplement in conjunction with Telomere Guard. Naturally, we recommend ours.


These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to prevent, cure, treat or diagnose any disease.

Suggested Use

Although a daily dose has not been established, for adults we recommend taking 6 capsules per day, three in the morning and three in the early afternoon.

Other Ingredients

rice powder, water, hidroxy, propyl, methyl, cellulose.

Warnings

Not recommended for pregnant or lactating women. Keep out of reach of children. Store in a cool, dry place and away from direct light.

Money Back Guarantee

If for any reason you are unsatisfied with a Terraternal product, simply return the unused portion to us within 30 days for a full refund. No questions asked.

Product Code: TRTG001
Package Quantity: 165 capsules
Shipping Weight: 6.2000 lbs
Serving Size: 6 capsules
 

Telomere Guard Supplement Facts


 Supplement Amount Per Serving % Daily Value
 Acai Powder (freeze dried) 133mg †
 Blueberry Powder (freeze dried) 133mg †
 Grape Seed Extract 133mg †
 Green Tea Extract (50% EGCG) 7mg †
 Haritaki Fruit Powder (Terminalia Chebula) 167mg †
 L-Carnosine 333mg †
 N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine 100mg †
 Purslane Extract Powder (Portulaca Oleracea) 167mg †
 Trimethylglycine (TMG) 50mg †
 Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin) 75mcg 1250%
 Vitamin B2 (as riboflavin) 3mg 176%
 Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine hcl) 3mg 150%
 Vitamin B9 (as folic acid) 100mcg 25%
 Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid 2-phosphate) 233mg 388%
 Vitamin D3 (as cholecalciferol) 1333IU 333%
 Vitamin E (as d-alpha tocopherol) 233IU 777%
 Vitamin E (as mixed tocotrienols) 80mg †
 † Daily Value not established  
   

References:

  • 1.
    Guo N, Parry EM, Li L-S, Kembou F, Lauder N, et al. (2011) Short Telomeres Compromise ß-Cell Signaling and Survival. PLoS ONE 6(3): e17858.

    Ergünm, Sahin et al. (2010) Telomere Dysfunction Induces Metabolic and Mitochondrial Compromise. Nature 470, 359–365.
  • 2.
    (skin cells divide approximately 50% less frequently by the eight decade of life.)
    Kaminer and Gilchrest. Aging of the skin. Principles of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994, 411-429.
  • 3
    Gutierrez L, Ju Z (2007) Telomere shortening induces cell intrinsic checkpoints and environmental alterations limiting adult stem cell function. In: Rudolph KL. Telomeres and Telomerase in Aging, Disease, and Cancer. Springer Publishing

    Maria A Blasco. Telomere Length, Stem Cells and Aging Nature Chemical Biology. Volume 3 Number 10 October 2007
  • 4:
    Yaar M, Gilchrest BA. (2001) Skin aging: postulated mechanims and consequent changes in structure and function. Clin GeriatrMed 17:617-630

    Funk WD, Wang CK, Shelton DN, Harley CB et al. Telomerase expression restores dermal integrity to to in vitro-aged fibroblasts in a reconsituted skin model. Exp Cell Res 258:270-278, 2000

    In the above study, skin was grown onto the back of a mouse. Skin reconstitution from early passage (20 population doublings) cells with longer telomeres deomonstrated good adhesion, complex dermal-epidermal interdigitiation, and good resistance to sheer strees. There were no microbullae or splitting between the two layers. There results were equivalent to results observed clinically in young skin.
    Late-passage (85 population doubling) human dermal cells that had short telomeres showed poor dermal-epidermal adhesion, simplified interdigiations, and a high sensitivity to sheer strees ther was extensive splitting and blistering (microbullae) along this junction. These results are equivalent to results observed clinically in older skin.
  • 5:
    Effros, R. B. (2008) Ageing and the Immune System, in Ageing Vulnerability: Causes and Interventions, Novartis Foundation Symposium 235 (eds G. Bock and J. A. Goode), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.

    Effros, R. B. (2008) Ageing and the Immune System, in Ageing Vulnerability: Causes and Interventions, Novartis Foundation Symposium 235 (eds G. Bock and J. A. Goode), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
    Effros, Fauce. Telomerase-Based Pharmacologic Enhancement of Antiviral Function of Human CD8+ T Lymphocytes1 J Immunol. 2008 November 15; 181(10): 7400–7406.
  • 6:
    For a detailed account of the effects of aging in cardiovascular, orthopedic, immune, endocrine, nervous systems and more, and their relationship to telomere shortening and cellular senescence, see:
    Michael Fossel. Cells, Aging and Human Disease. Oxford University Press 2004
  • 7.
    Richard G.A. Faragher1, David Kipling2, How might replicative senescence contribute to human ageing? BioEssays Volume 20, Issue 12, pages 985–991, December 1998
  • 8.
    Baur, Shay, Wright. Telomere Position Effect in Human Cells Science 15 June 2001: Vol. 292 no. 5524 pp. 2075-2077
  • 9.
    Harley, Lui, Blasco, et al. (2010) A Natural Product Telomerase Activator as Part of a Health Maintenance Program. Rejuvenation Research, Volume 14, Number

    Page 10, paragraph 4:
    "Paradoxically, although ~40% of subjects showed an increase in mean telomere length over time, on average across all subjects there was a nonsignificant decline in mean telomere length. However, we speculate this effect is explained by cell dynamics and the fact that telomerase preferentially lengthens the shortest telomeres."

    Blasco, et al. (2011) The Telomerase Activator TA-65 Elongates Short Telomeres and Increases Health Span of Adult/Old Mice Without Increasing Cancer Incidence.Aging Cell Volume 10, Issue 4, pages 604–621,
  • 10.
  • A Natural Product Telomerase Activator as Part of a Health Maintenance Program. Ibid.

    The Telomerase Activator TA-65 Elongates Short Telomeres and Increases Health Span of Adult/Old Mice Without Increasing Cancer Incidence. Ibid
  • 11.
    Yokoo, Furumoto, et al. Age-dependent telomere shortening is slowed down by enrichment of intracellular vitamin C via suppression of oxidative stress. Life Sci. 1998;63(11):935-48.

    Lorenz M, Saretzki G, Sitte N, et al. 2001. BJ fibroblasts display high antioxidant capacity and slow telomere shortening independent of hTERT transfection. Free Radic Biol Med 31: 824–831.

    Saretzki G, von Zglinicki T. 2002. Replicative aging, telomeres, and oxidative stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci 959: 24–29.